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Cleopatra VII was the last pharaoh of Egypt. She became ruler when she was 18 along with her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII who was 13.

For many years, the Roman Empire grew and controlled more and more of Egypt. So when Caesar came to Egypt with his army three years later, Cleopatra worked hard to make friends with him. Egypt had had droughts and the people were hungry and unhappy.

Caesar stayed in Egypt for 9 months. When he returned to Rome, he took Cleopatra with him. People in Rome didn't like Cleopatra. So when Caesar was killed, she quickly went back to Egypt. When she got back to Egypt, she found that the canals had not been taken care of and the flood waters were not being trapped in the basins and wells. Things were very bad.

Many Romans wanted to run Egypt because it had great treasures. A warrior named Octavius took over Egypt after Caesar died. He told Queen Cleopatra that he would make her a slave. She let a snake, called an Asp, bite her, rather than become a slave. She died from the snake bite.

The Romans ruled Egypt for a long time. Then Moslem invaders came to Egypt. Today, most Egyptians believe in the Moslem religion.

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