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ancient egypt timeline
3200 BC    Upper and Lower Egypt united by Menes, first Pharaoh, who built his capital in Memphis

Dynasty I 3100-2890

Development of calendar

Development of hieroglyphic writing

3100 BC Dynasty I: trading with Levant

Copper tools and weapons are being used

3000 BC   Expeditions to Sudan
2900 BC Large basin and irrigation projects undertaken

Pharaoh's tombs are built near Abydos and Memphis

First written methods on performing surgery

2800 BC   Dynasty II 2890-2685

Religious and political conflicts between Upper and Lower Egypt

Statues of granite, slate and stone now being created

2700 BC Reunification under Pharaoh Khasekhemwy

More building made of stone, rather than mud and bricks

2600 BC Dynasty III 2685-2613

Djoser undertakes many projects to improve Egypt

Step pyramid built in Sakkarah

Egypt takes over Lower Nubia

2500 BC Dynasty IV 2613-2494

Series of excellent Pharaohs, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure

Importation of wood from Lebanon

King Snefru built the Bent Pyramid in Dahshur

Great Pyramids and Sphinx built in Gizeh

2400 BC   Dynasty V 2494-2345

Gold and incense imported

Gods Ra and Heliopolis gain importance

Text about funeral customs inscribed in the royal tombs

Rise in wealth of the royal families enables them to commission elaborate sculptures of wood and stone

2300 BC Power of the Pharaoh weakens as he must delegate authority to other in order to maintain the social and political structure in Egypt
2200 BC Dynasty VI 2345-2181

Rise in power of the feudal lords leads to anarchy under Pepi II

2100 BC Dynasty VII 2181-2173

Dissolution of monarchy leads to anarchy and political and social chaos and an interruption of religious traditions resulting in the ransacking of tombs and destruction of many works of art

2200 BC Dynasty VIII 2173-2160
2100 BC Dynasty X 2130-2040

Rulers of Lower and Middle Egypt battle against the Theban rulers of Upper Egypt, Upper Egypt wins

Tombs of nobles inscribed with funeral and coffin texts

2000 BC   Dynasty XI 2133-1991

Egypt reunified by Theban Pharaoh, Mentuhotep

An artistic renaissance, inspired by the restoration of order

Mentuhotep builds his temple at Deir el Bahri

1900 BC Dynasty XII 1991-1786

Nobility is reigned in by the Pharaohs of this dynasty

Major retention basins, farmland basins and irrigation ditches dug to preserve black soil and flood waters

1800 BC   God Ammon becomes prominent

Period of time where creative, artistic, literature, and architecture flourished and abounded

1700 BC Dynasty XIII 1786-1633

Artistic and cultural renaissance begins to decline

1600 BC Dynasty XIV 1786-1603

Asia invades Egypt and Hyksos kings reign and denounce culture

Decline of art and philosophic ideas

Dynasty XVI 1684-1567

Asians introduce horse drawn carts and chariots

Techniques for improved spinning and weaving incorporated

New musical instruments like the lyre, oboe and tambourine used

Dynasty XVII 1650-1567

The Lower Sudan and Nubia gets free from the Hysksos

1500 BC Dynasty XVIII 1567-1320

Egyptians regain control under Pharaoh Ahmose I

Thutmose III spreads the Egyptian empire to the Eupharates River

The female Pharaoh Hatshepsut built a temple at Deir el Bahri

Pharaoh Tutankhamen ruled

Tombs in the Valley of the Kings are expanded

The religious idea of one god, monotheism, no longer predominates due to the shift of power to the "clergy" and away from the God/King

1300 BC Dynasty XIX 1320-1200

Hittite threaten Egypt and are repelled by Pharaohs Seti I and Ramses II

Time of much building in which the temple of Ramses II at Thebes, the Hypostyle Hall at Karnak, the temple at Abu-Simbel were created, and the "Books of the Dead" were written on papyrus scrolls

1200 BC Dynasty XX 1200-1085

The Ramses Pharaohs, III through XI, rule and invasions of numerous barbarians are repelled, however, the country has lost it's total obedience to the Pharaoh because of the division of power among the clergy and the rise of power among the rich nobility (similar to the fall of Greece and fall of Rome)

Increased poverty and lack of law and order

Tombs of Thebes are ransacked

Dynasty XXI 1085-945

Egypt is again divided as kings become dependent on mercenary soldiers from Libya

The Khons temple at Karnak is completed

800 BC   Dynasty XXII 950-730

Libyan's take over Egypt and their kings rule

A period a fine metal working

700 BC Dynasty XXIV 730-715

Egyptian king ruled briefly

600 BC   Dynasty XXV 751-656

Nubian Pharaohs rule Egypt

Study of the past is fostered, along with interest in realistic art

Assyrians (from Syria) attack and sack Thebes

500 BC Dynasty XXVI 663-525

Egyptians gain independence from Assyrians

Inscriptions in stone are perfectly executed

400 BC   Dynasty XXVII 525-405

Persians conquer and rule Egypt

A canal from the Nile to the Red Sea is completed

Darius I of Persia has the law codified and inscribed

Dynasty XXVIII 404-398

Greeks help Egyptians expel Persians and Egyptian King returned

Dynasty XXIX 498-378

Pharaohs from the delta region rule

Pharaohs create numerous monuments

Dynasty XXX 378-341

Last Egyptian ruler is dethroned by Persians

Last flowering of Egyptian art

300 BC Ptolemaic Period Alexander the Great conquers Egypt, and after his death a general founds the Ptolemaic Dynasty

Temples of Isis at Philawe Horus at Edfu, Kom Ombo, and Hathor at Dendra are built

48 BC   Julius Caesar enters Egypt
30 BC Death of Cleopatra VII and the end of the Ptolemaic

Dynasty and native Egyptian rule

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