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world timeline
middle east
1 BC Romans invade England

410 AD City of Rome sacked by Alaric the Bold (Visigoths)

442 Roman troops leave Britain

452 Atilla the Hun enters Italy

455 The last Roman Emperor is overthrown

476 The last Roman Emperor in the West is overthrown

527-65 Justinian attempts to recover Roman Empire for the Byzantine Empire

484 The Huns attack Persia and kill the Emperor

527-65 Under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire conquers much of the Middle East

579 At the end of the reign of Chosroes the First, the Sassanian Empire of Persia reaches its greatest extent

622 Muhammad flees from Mecca to Medina

630 Muhammad returns to Mecca and makes it the capital of his new empire

632 Death of Muhammad and the start of Arab expansion throughout the Middle East

642 The Arabs conquer Persia and overthrow the Sassanian Empire

400 Axum in Ethiopia

429 The Vandals overrun the Roman Empire in north Africa and set up their own kingdom

535 The Byzantine Emperor Justinian conquers north Africa

639 Arabs invade Egypt

535 Final collapse of Gupta Empire in India

581 Sui Dynasty founded in China

594 Buddhism becomes official religion of Japan

618-907 Tang Dynasty in China

624 Buddhism becomes the official religion of China

c.300 The Mayan Empire begins

c.600 Teotihuacan is at the height of its power

c.600 Cities of Tiahuanaco and Huari in South America start to grow in size and importance

711 Muslims invade Spain

732 Muslim armies defeated in France

750 The Feudal System starts to emerge

771-814 Charlemagne rules vast Frankish Empire in western Europe

793 Vikings start to raid Britain and France

843-870 Charlemagnes empire split in two parts

962 Otto the First of Germany crowned as the First Holy Roman Emperor

756 The Islamic Empire starts to break up into independent countries

762 Baghdad is founded by Al-Mansur

971 Worlds first university is founded in Cairo

c.700 Whole of north Africa is now controlled by Arabs and converts to Islam

c.700 Arab traders start to cross the Sahara and trade with the peoples to the south

700-1200 Empire of Ghana, the first great African empire grows rich on trade

802 The Angkor kingdom is establish in Cambodia under the Khmer Dynasty

868 The Diamond Sutra is printed in China. It is the worlds oldest printed book

960-1127 Dung Dynasty rules China from Kaifeng

c.750 Mayan Empire and Teotihuacan start to decline

c.900 Anasazi peoples of North America build pueblos in the cliffs

c.900 The Toltecs conquer the Mayas and build an empire in Central America

1000-1150 Romanesque architecture popular in Europe

1050 Beginnings of universities in Europe

1066 the Norman duke, William the Conqueror, invades and conquers England

1086 Domesday Book completed

1096-99 First Crusade. Crusaders capture Jerusalem from Muslims

1100 Introduction of Arabic science and revival of classical works of Greeks and Romans

1154 Angevin Empire of England and France reaches its greatest extent

1096-9 The First Crusade captures Jerusalem and establishes a number of Christian states in the area

1187 Jerusalem is recaptured from the Crusaders

1071 East African ports of Kilwa and Gedi send ambassadors to China

1190 Lalibela becomes king of Ethiopia and starts to build new churches

1003 Vikings sail to Vinland (Newfoundland) and possible explore coast as far south as Florida

c.1200 Aztecs begin to establish an empire in Mexico

1200 City of Cuzco is founded by the first Incas

1215 Great Charter of Liberties, Magna Carta, signed by King John of England

1237 Mongols invade Russia, Hungary and Poland

1241 Hanseatic League established by Hamburg and Lubeck - a trading association

1337-1453 Hundred Years War between England and France

1347-53 Black Death sweeps Europe

1258 The Mongols capture Baghdad

1261 the Mongol advance in the Middle East is stopped by the Egyptians

1291 The Crusaders are finally thrown out of the Holy land

1235 The Kingdom of Mali is established

c.1250 The city of Jenne is founded

c.1300 Great Zimbabwe emerges as a major trading empire

1324 Mansa Musa, king of Mali, goes on a pilgrimage to Mecca and astounds everyone with his wealth

1418, 1422 Chinese fleets visit east Africa in search of trade

1206 Temujin becomes supreme ruler of the Mongols and takes the name Genghis Khan

1211 Mongols invade China

1264 Kublai Khan becomes ruler of China and sets up Yuan Dynasty in 1280 that lasts to 1368

1271-95 The Venetian merchant Marco Polo travels across Asia to China

1333 China suffers terrible drought, famine, and floods, followed by the plague. Up to five million people die

1368 Ming Dynasty takes over in China

1369-1405 Tamerlane rules a new Mongol Empire based on Samarkand in central Asia

1421 Beijing (Peking) becomes the capital of China

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